New methods approved by FDA for treating digestive tract cancers

The drug Lutathera (lutetium Lu 177 dotatate) was approved by US FDA for treating gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), which is a new type of cancer that affects either the pancreas or gastrointestinal tract.

Lutathera (lutetium Lu 177 dotatate) is a radioactive drug or radiopharmaceutical that has been approved by FDA. This is an important breakthrough as it is the first radiopharmaceutical drug that is approved as treatment for GEP-NETs. In adult patients with somatostatin receptor-positive GEP-NETs, Lutathera drug was found to be quite effective in nature.

The treatment options for GEP-NETs were limited as it is a rare group of cancers and conventional therapy was not successful in preventing the cancer from proliferating. With US FDA approving the drug Lutathera, it is a ray of hope for patients with these rare forms of cancer. It also establishes that US FDA is now open to considering data from therapies, which are used in an expanded access program.

GEP-NETs may develop in pancreas and in different parts of gastrointestinal tract, such as stomach, intestines, colon, and rectum. Previous studies have reported that approximately one out of 27,000 people were diagnosed with GEP-NETs each year.

Lutathera is a radioactive drug, which works by binding with somatostatin receptor, which is a component of cell and is present in certain tumors. After binding with the receptor, the drug enters the cell and the resultant radiation damages tumor cells.

The drug Lutathera was approved by two research studies: a randomized clinical trial was conducted on 229 patients with a certain type of advanced GEP-NET, which showed positive response to the receptor somatostatin.

In this clinical trial, patients received a combination of Lutathera and octreotide drug or they received only the drug octreotide. In this research study, researchers measured the period of time for which tumors did not grow after the patients received treatment (progression-free survival).

Patients who were prescribed Lutathera and octreotide had longer progression-free survival period than patients who received only octreotide. Compared to patients who received only octreotide, the risk of tumor growth or patient death was lower for patients who received both Lutathera and octreotide .

The second research study was performed on 1,214 patients in Netherlands. These patients were diagnosed with somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, including GEP-NETS. They were administered Lutathera at a single site.

In 16 percent of a subset of 360 patients with GEP-NETs, the tumors shrunk either completely or partially. The US-FDA authorities evaluated the response of these drugs to GEP-NETs. Patients who were enrolled in this study initially received Lutathera as part of an expanded access program. For patients with serious or immediate life-threatening diseases or conditions, expanded access is the way to gain access to investigational drugs for treatment use.

The drug Lutathera has following side-effects: low levels of white blood cells (lymphopenia), high levels of enzymes in certain organs (increased GGT, AST and/or ALT), vomiting, nausea, high levels of blood sugar (hyperglycemia), and low levels of potassium in blood (hypokalemia).

The drug Lutathera has following serious side-effects: low levels of blood cells (myelosuppression), development of certain blood or bone marrow cancers (secondary myelodysplastic syndrome and leukemia), kidney damage (renal toxicity), liver damage (hepatotoxicity), abnormal levels of hormones in human body (neuroendocrine hormonal crises) and infertility.

The drug Lutathera can harm a developing fetus; therefore, women are advised of the potential risk to fetus before undergoing treatment. To administer the drug lutathera, patients are exposed to radiation.

Guidelines to include feedback of patients in clinical trials


The impact of treatment on participants and their quality of life must be assessed more comprehensively, so it is imperative to make changes in international guidelines. The safety of participating patients and integrity of data collected depends on the protocols used for describing a clinical trial: objectives, design, methodology, statistical consideration, and organization.

Current protocols do not emphasize much on patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Most researchers have recommended that feedback must be collected from patients on how clinical trial affects overall quality of life.

According to a noted medical researcher at the University of Birmingham, feedback received from patients participating in a clinical trial can hold valuable information for following purposes: pharmaceutical labeling claims, clinical guidelines, health policy, shared-decision making.

Most clinical trials currently do not include information on quality of life and symptom data. This data must be collected to provide patient-centered care and to develop specific protocol guidelines.

Recommended changes to current protocols of clinical trials were published in the Journal of American Medical Association. This information was a joint-collaboration across universities of Toronto, Sydney, and Birmingham. It is important to understand the impact clinical trials have on cancer patients.

With this information, patients can then decide which line of treatment is most suitable for them. The side-effects of cancer treatments are often long-lasting and most clinical trials do not include this line of information. A cancer patient receiving treatment may live for years but their quality of life is severely impacted with these side-effects.

Patient-related outcomes (PROs) are classified as primary or secondary in clinical trial protocols; these outcomes need to be included in the current checklist guidelines of clinical trial protocol.

The PRO specific issues are as follows: trial rationale, eligibility criteria, objective, intervention, assessment time-points, proxy completion, and strategies for minimizing missing data.

The guidance prescribed in PROs is not prescriptive, but it provides a pathway for implementing a careful planning of PRO components of trials. Thus, PRO trial design improves, and the rationale for assessing PRO is improved. Thus, high quality analysis is ensured and reported, thereby improving the evidence base of PRO on a global scale.

Clinicians can use PROs effectively to make right decisions, thereby improving the line of recovery and treatment. This is a more effective strategy for comprehensively reporting personal experiences of patients with serious illness.

More guidelines must be consistently presented to help both patients and clinicians and to improve the outcome of prognosis. By improving the reporting of PRO data, the outcomes of patients with chronic diseases can be improved tremendously.




First clinical trial on lung stem cell transplantation in China

In Tongji University in China, researchers have developed an innovative technology for regenerating human lungs. In a successful clinical trial, autologous lung stem cell transplantation was carried out to regenerate damaged lungs of patients.

This study was reported in open access journal Protein & Cell (This journal was published by Springer Nature.). Professor Zuo and his colleagues successfully published this paper in 2015. They identified p63+/Krt5+ adult stem cells in mouse lungs that could regenerate bronchioles, alveoli, and other pulmonary structures.

Following this successful breakthrough, these researchers from Tongji University are now working in conjunction with Kiangnan Stem Cell Institute to apply the same discovery to human cells, rather than mice.

Human lungs are completely different from that of mice, both in terms of anatomy and developmental processes. Therefore, chronic pulmonary disorders can be solved by directly investigating human lungs.

An SOX9+ marker was used to label the category of basal cells, which could be cloned into lung stem cells in human beings. Professor Ren Tao is a renowned physician who worked in Shanghai East Hospital.

To produce lung stem cells from tiny samples of basal cells, lung bronchoscopy was performed by a team of researchers headed by Professor Ren Tao.

Lung stem cells were produced from about 0.2% of cells from each brush. A scaled expansion was conducted in a well maintained fashion to ensure genetic stability and molecular phenotypes of these cells.

To determine the capacity of lung stem cells and to regenerate lung tissue in vivo, GFP-labeled human lung stem cells were transplanted into damaged lungs of immunodeficient mice.

Three weeks after transplantation, a “human-mouse chimeric organ” was formed by integrating human lung stem cells in a large area of mice lungs.

By performing histological analysis, the transplanted stem cells were regenerated into bronchial and alveolar structures in lungs of mice. Around the regenerated structures of human alveoli, host capillaries were observed to be rising.

In other words, functional respiratory units were generated and they were detected by gold nanoparticle tracking technique. After performing stem cell transplantation successfully, new human alveoli were formed in place of fibrotic area in injured lungs. Lung function in mice was significantly restored by performing arterial blood gas analysis.

The first clinical trial was performed successfully by a team of researchers from the following organizations: Southwest Hospital of China Army University and Regend Therapeutics.

An autologous transplantation of lung stem cells was carried out for the treatment of bronchiectasis. Bronchiectasis is defined as a permanent injury that is caused to the bronchial structure of lungs. Two patients were included in this study in March 2016 following strict supervision by ethical committees.

The generated lung stem cells were transplanted into patients’ lung by performing bronchoscopy. These patients were then monitored for one year continuously. Multiple respiratory symptoms, such as coughing and dyspnea, were mitigated in these patients, one year after transplantation.

The dilated structures showed almost complete recovery as per CT images. Three months after transplantation, patients showed an improved in lung function and they showed further signs of recovery till one year.



New structure of key protein holds clues for better drug design

Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have peered deep into the heart of a key protein used in drug design and discovered dynamic structural features that may lead to new ways to target diseases. The protein, called the A2A adenosine receptor (A2aAR), is a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, which are the targets of roughly 40 percent of all approved pharmaceuticals.

The new, more detailed image of A2aAR’s signaling mechanism reveals key parts of its inner workings, including an amino acid that acts like a “toggle switch” to control signaling across the cell membrane. Journal Cell published this path-breaking discovery today. Based on imaging techniques, it can be inferred that shape of proteins changes.

The proteins A2aAR and other GPCRs are embedded into plasma membrane of human cells. In the human body, there are more than 800 GPCRs and each plays a pivotal role in regulating the functions of body. The protein A2aAR performs a pivotal role in regulating blood flow and inflammation. The effects of caffeine will be mediated by the protein A2aAR. For treating Parkinson’s disease, A2aAR is a relatively new target. The protein A2aAR is a relatively new target for cancer treatment.

Scientists used X-ray crystallography, an imaging technique, to determine the three-dimensional structure of A2aAR protein in previous studies. The X-ray images show that A2aAR protein resembles a chain, crisscrossing the cell membrane. The side facing out of the cell has an opening. For signaling associate proteins inside the cell, the region of GPCR structure emerges out of the membrane and interacts with drugs.

During inactive and active-like states, crystal structures provided an outline of the receptor’s shape. When A2aAR was combined with new binding partners, such as pharmaceutical candidates, no motion and changes in cell structure was observed. In this study, researchers realized that they need to establish the molecular mechanism through which A2aAR works in combating diseases. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used by researchers for investigation. In this process, the positions of probes in a sample were located with these strong magnetic fields. By using NMR technique, the structure of proteins was determined by scientists. Scientists also investigated the dynamic properties of the solutions at temperatures prevalent in the human body.

The team of researchers visualized the changes in the internal structure of A2aAR proteins. In the new study, researchers investigated the effects of binding drugs with extracellular surface. Changes were observed in the protein structure and dynamics at the intracellular surface. Thus, structural basis of signal transfer were determined. Chemists modified drugs and manipulated the switch to control A2aAR signals.


Researchers develop a remote-controlled cancer immunotherapy system

An innovative ultrasound system has been developed to control genetic processes in live T cells of the immune system. This team of researchers can destroy cancer cells. By developing non-invasive immunotherapeutic strategies, cancer cells can be manipulated and destroyed.

An innovative approach was used to improve practical applications of mechanogenetics: a field of science that improves the expression of genetics and activity of cells. T cells were mechanically destroyed by ultrasound. To genetically control cells, mechanical signals were used.

In this study, it was found that mechanogenetics system could be remote controlled and T cells can be manipulated by chimeric antigen receptor (CAR). Cancer cells can be targeted and killed with this innovative approach.

Researchers have engineered CAR-T cells with mechano-sensors, genetically transducing modules. This innovative approach was termed as CAR-T cell therapy, which provided a paradigm shift for the treatment of cancer.

Life-threatening complications develop when CAR-T cells are non-specifically targeted. Precision and accuracy of CAR-T cell immunotherapy was improved in an unprecedented manner. This innovative immunotherapy was used to target solid tumors. At the same time, off-tumor activities were minimized.

Microbubbles were conjugated to streptavidin and they were attached to cell surface. Mechanical vibration and stimulation of Piezo1 ion channels was performed by microbubbles when they were exposed to ultrasound waves. This led to the entry of calcium ions into the cell, triggering the following downstream pathways: calcineurin activation, NFAT dephoshorylation and translocation into the nucleus.

With recognition and destruction of targeted cancer cells, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) was used to initiate the expression of genes.




Possible Cure for Drug-resistant malaria: toothpaste ingredient

Researchers at the University of Cambridge have an innovative cure for drug-resistant malaria. This ingredient is commonly found in toothpastes.

A mosquito is the key carrier of malarial pathogens. Whenever such a mosquito bites a human being, these parasites are transferred into bloodstream of humans. Such parasites move through the liver for colonization and proliferation.

After proliferation and colonization in the liver, they attack red blood cells and multiply continuously. This further leads to potentially threatening illnesses.

In Africa and south-east Asia, more than a million people are affected by malaria. Although numerous medicines are commercially available in the market, it has been found that malarial parasites are mutating in recent times.

According to a recent study in the journal “Scientific Reports,a team of researchers discovered that triclosan is the active ingredient that can fight “drug-resistant bacteria.” Triclosan obstructs the development of plaque bacteria with the help of the enzyme enoyl reductase (ENR). This enzyme was used for producing fatty acids.

To investigate therapeutic efficiency of triclosan, scientists attacked the culture of pathogens. They found that triclosan could target ENR, which is a virulent strain of pathogenic bacteria in the liver.

Triclosan suppresses the growth of parasites by completely inhibiting an enzyme, named DHFR. An anti-malarial drug named pyrimethamine targets DHFR; however, this target is also resisted by malarial parasites in Africa. Interestingly, triclosan could target even these parasites resistant to pyrimethamine.

In Africa and south-east Asia, a growing concern is the proliferation of drug-resistant malaria. The expression of ENR and DHFR was inhibited by triclosan. Triclosan is found to be effective on the parasite both in the liver and bloodstream. Thus, there is hope of a new drug against drug-resistant parasites.

This experimental research study was conducted in conjunction with robot scientist “Eve” in order to accelerate drug discovery process. With the help of artificial intelligence and machine learning, an innovative approach can be established for inventing new drugs.


Innovative colitis treatment through precision editing of gut bacteria

Medical researchers at Southwestern Medical Center, Utah, performed precision editing on bacterial populations in the gut. This reduced the severity of inflammation and colitis in mice.

The potential strategy was to target metabolic pathways that are active only during intestinal inflammation, preventing or reducing inflammation in mice with colitis. At the same time, no obvious effect was observed in control animals with healthy, balanced bacterial populations.

This path-breaking discovery was published in latest issue of Nature magazine.Our results present a conceptual framework for precisely altering bacterial species, which line the gut and reduce inflammation caused by colitis and other forms of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD].

In this experimental study, a form of tungsten, a heavy metal that is dangerous in high doses, was used. It was never safe to ingest heavy metals. Our primary goal was to identify a safe therapy that exerts a similar effect.

There is a diverse population of microbes, which form a thin line on the intestinal tract. These microbes are essential for the maintenance of good health. They help in digestion, improve the immune system, and fend off infections.

When there is an imbalance in microbial populations, these beneficial bacteria become a liability as they become invasive and push out competing species. It is difficult to understand the biology of gut microbiota thanks to its vast diversity.

In humans, several different species of bacteria were found in the intestinal tract. The composition of species differs extensively for individuals.The composition of gut microbiota changes considerably, causing many chronically progressive diseases, such IBD, Crohn’s disease, and ulcerative colitis.

According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, at least 1 million adults in the United States of America are affected by IBD. Currently, there is no cure for such diseases. Changes in gut microbiota also occur in patients with Type 2 diabetes, colon cancer, HIV-related intestinal disease, and necrotizing enterocolitis. These diseases are also observed in certain premature infants.

Bacteria found in the gut microbiota belonged to enterobacteriaceae family, causing many inflammatory diseases.  In healthy gut, a small number of healthy bacteria are present. They belong to E.coli (Escherichia coli). These bacteria also protect pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, which is the cause of food poisoning. In mouse models of colitis, there is uncontrolled growth of enterobacteriaceae species.

In a paper published by Cell Host & Microbe, it was reported that cellular energy was produced by Enterobacteriaceae family. Gut bacteria uses this energy for improving growth and obtaining nutrients. Unique metabolic pathways were used to improve the growth and drive out beneficial bacteria at the time of illness.

These unique pathways are used to improve inflammation in gut. In current study, heavy metal tungsten was used to inhibit pathways obstructing metabolism. An inflammation develops due to incessant growth of pathogenic bacteria.

These researchers have reported that tungsten was absorbed by bacteria, and an important bacterial cofactor was incorporated. Under such circumstances, enterobacteriaceae loses its ability to generate energy due to inflammation.

Tungstate was orally administered in the form of a soluble tungsten salt. Beneficial bacteria were not affected in this innovative experiment. This is because a particular cofactor cannot govern the metabolism of beneficial bacteria.

The proliferation of enterobacteriaceae was stopped in our current experiment. When enterobacteriaceae  species were present in correct ratios, colonization would be resisted by bacterial pathogens.

By controlling the proliferation of bacteria, inflammatory episodes were prevented completely. With miniscule experimental evidence, it can be postulated that diseases of the gut worsen due to changes in the composition of microbiota.

In this study, it was found that inflammation of the gut was reduced and a normal state was achieved using tungstate treatment. In most experiments, tungsten was used to rectify a molecular target. This treatment was therapeutic for patients. At the same time, tungsten is the heavy metal that provokes neurological and reproductive diseases.

Conventional approaches are focused on treating pathogenic bacteria. However, this path-breaking research is quite useful to harness bacteria in the normal gut. The composition and function of gut microbiota was controlled.

Most doctors prescribe broad spectrum antibiotics. The final objective is to tarnish numerous bacteria in the gut. Whenever a patient visits the clinic in a critical state, most doctors prescribe antibiotics as there is no time for identifying specific pathogen. In such a scenario, broad-spectrum antibiotics kill most pathogens along with beneficial bacteria.

Only one family of bacteria, enterobacteriaceae, was targeted in our study. Although results are promising, more studies must be conducted to identify potential therapies that cause human diseases.


How Accessible Publishing has Revolutionized Academic Publishing

The world of scientific publishing has undergone a metamorphosis in recent times. The key ingredients here are “authentication” and “piracy” in scholarly communications. Many people have come up with “inclusiveness of scholarly communications,” for disabled people. There seems to be a lacuna in the world of scientific publications, given the “professional” and “educational” spheres of education. In a highly connected world, knowledge must be disseminated through “journals,” “books,” and “databases.”

At one end, most academicians are of the view that

knowledge must grow with highly authoritative communications being accessible to readers. At the other end, publishers argue about “copyright infringement” with new challenges towards tackling piracy and digital infringement. Accessibility is still an issue for scholarly communications.

According to the National Institute of Health, there are more than 285 million people with some form of physical, cognitive, and educational challenge in the USA. Nevertheless, the enrollment of disabled masses is just 10–20% across colleges in the USA. People with disabilities are a sizeable population if we take into consideration that they can be perennial customers of scholarly communications.

“Accessibility” is still an issue here for most publishers. Publishers are concerned about “return on investment” while catering to such people. Accessible publishing is not really avenue for making great revenues. However, people with disabilities are now being considered for inclusiveness and diversity. They are provided with “navigable, feature-rich content” through various innovative publishers: DAISY and ReadSpeaker.

Accessible publishing is far superior given the fact that it can improve the “quality” and “interoperability” of metadata. With proliferation of machine learning and search engine optimization (SEO), general discoverability of such innovative publications is improved significantly. Publishers and technological evangelists provide deciphering workflow with maximum accessibility to all stages of publications, right from manuscript selection, improvement, and publications. Right from increasing submissions to improving usage, measurable benefits can be availed through “accessible publishing.”

Accessible publishing is much easier today thanks to developments in technology although it does require some efforts out here. Technologies such as HTML, EPUB, etc., would be leveraged to provide the best practices in accessible publishing. Industry-standard workflow formats of publishing are now accessible to all readers. The mission of academic publishing would be to disseminate knowledge through “accessible publishing.” They can envision the horizon of many accessible publishers.




In Mice with Alzheimer’s, memory loss is reversed with diabetic drug

According to a recently published paper in Brain Research, a diabetic drug could be used to reverse memory loss in mice with Alzheimer’s disease. This study was conducted at Lancaster University in the UK. Professor Christian Holscher was the lead researcher of this study. This is a promising line of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease, a common neurodegenerative disorder. The drug was conventionally used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.

Memory loss and dementia are the most common signs of Alzheimer’s disease. According to Alzheimer’s Society, more than two million people would suffer from Alzheimer’s disease by 2051. This research study was partially funded by Alzheimer’s Society. It is alarming rate of increase and there has been no new treatment for Alzheimer’s disease in recent times.

Since the past 15 years, physicians have been prescribing the same medications for patients with Alzheimer’s disease. According to Dr Doug Brown at the Alzheimer’s Society, new drugs must be urgently developed to tackle the growing number of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Patients with Alzheimer’s disease cannot lead normal lives as dementia progresses quickly, limiting their cognitive skills and memory.

Diabetic drug liraglutide was tested on mice with Alzheimer’s disease; however, its efficacy must be further tested on human patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Randomized clinical trial need to be carried out with this objective. “Triple agonist drugs” have also shown promising results on mice with Alzheimer’s disease. Nevertheless, much needs to be done in the area of research and development.

Liraglutide is a “triple receptor drug” that has been tested for the first time. Researchers found that this drug could offer protection against degeneration of brain cells. Growth factors GLP-1, GIP, and Glucagon are combined in the formulation of the diabetic drug liraglutide. Previous studies have reported that growth signaling factors get impaired in the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

In this research study, scientists used transgenic mice APP/PSI. In these mice, they observed the expression of mutated genes, which cause Alzheimer’s disease. The same genes also undergo mutation in humans with Alzheimer’s disease. This form of Alzheimer’s is inherited through genetic mutation.

Researchers found that even in the advanced stage of neurodegeneration, memory loss could be significantly reversed in transgenic mice. By administering liraglutide drug to these aged mice, they could not improve memory but also cognitive ability. By performing maze test, they found that growth factors were enhanced in the brain of aged transgenic mice.

These growth factors in the brain would ensure normally functioning of nerve cells, preventing them from undergoing degeneration. Moreover, the drug decreased the formation of amyloid plaques in the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation were reduced with the administration of this drug. Finally, the rate of nerve cell loss decreased following the action of this drug.

According to Professor Holscher, clinical trials have been successfully conducted with an older version of this drug. The promising results suggested that this drug was suitable for treating patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Although this drug was originally developed to manage type 2 diabetes, many studies have reported about its neuro-protective effects.

Our study is unique in the fact that a novel triple drug shows promising results when used as a line of treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. However, further clinical trials must be conducted in a dose-dependent manner on humans, and its efficacy must be compared with existing drugs to know whether if the novel drug is superior to existing ones.

The risk of Alzheimer’s disease is high in patients with type 2 diabetes. Quite often, Alzheimer’s disease develops with the progression of type 2 diabetes. Owing to impaired insulin levels, cerebral degeneration occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes. This leads to the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

In the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, scientists have found that there is no sensitivity to insulin. They believe that neurodegenerative disorders occur due to insulin desensistization in the brain. This is because insulin exhibits neuroprotective effects as it is a growth factor in human brain.


A new recyclable treatment for destroying cancer cells selectively

Researchers at the University of Warwick have developed a new recyclable treatment for destroying cancer cells. This research study was led by Professor Peter J. Sadler, who works at the Department of Chemistry at the University of Warwick. They have synthesized an organic-osmium compound, which can selectively attack cancer cells. The compound was synthesized using sodium formate in non-toxic dosages. Sodium formate is found in many organisms as a natural product. Ants and nettles also synthesize this natural product.

The novel organic-osmium compound was named JPC11 by researchers. They found that this compound can target metabolic process that governs the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. Cancer cells derive energy for rapid division and proliferation from a key substance, which belongs to the class of pyruvates. This key substance is converted into unnatural lactate by JPC11. The resultant lactate destroys cancer cells.

The significance of this treatment lies in the fact that the chemo-catalyst JPC11 is recyclable; therefore, it can be reused to repeatedly attack a particular cancer cell line. This is a path-breaking innovation in cancer treatment as JPC11 is a novel compound that paves the way for recyclable treatment of cancer. In future, side-effects and toxicity of chemotherapy can be minimized by administering such recyclable drugs in smaller dosages. The functional capacity of JPC11 is unprecedented given the recyclable ability of the compound. Researchers have been now focusing on how this compound can be effectively used to treat ovarian cancer.

It is difficult to treat patients with ovarian cancer because they are usually resistant to conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. In particular, they are highly resistant to the platinum drug cisplatin. This new drug broadens the scope of anticancer treatment given the fact that it is recyclable and reusable. The new drug is promising as it destroys cancer cells through a completely novel mechanism, so ovarian cancer patients may not be resistant to this novel drug.

One of the major attractions of this compound is the fact that it selectively destroys cancer cells. Researchers found that JPC11 compound primarily targeted the expression of cancer cells. The compound did not attack healthy living cells, so they were mostly unaffected by exposure to JPC11 compound. Compared to conventional platinum drugs, the selectivity of JPC11 compound is far more superior and effective. In fact, the conventional platinum drugs would also destroy healthy living cells which were in the vicinity of cancer cells. Thus, the selective activity of JPC11 compound seems to be a major breakthrough in cancer treatment.

According to Dr. James Coverdale, this is a path-breaking discovery in the treatment of cancer. Dr. James Coverdale is a research scholar at the Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick. He worked with his colleagues to develop this innovative compound, which holds promising results in cancer treatment. By synthesizing this compound, they broadened the applications of chemistry in medical science. With this compound, they have come up with a novel strategy for killing cancer cells selectively. The compound JPC11 is a chemo-catalyst with a unique mechanism of action, which seems to be more selective and effective in destroying cancer cells. Given its high selectivity, it paves the way for new treatments that are much safer and effective than conventional treatments.

Peter Sadler is a medicinal chemist who also worked with this research group at the University of Warwick. According to Professor Peter Sadler, cancer chemotherapy mainly involves the use of platinum compounds. However, these drugs have poor selectivity and less safety, so new drugs must be invented to overcome the problem of side-effects and drug-resistance. In this research study, a truly novel drug was discovered for cancer treatment. Professor Peter Sadler believes that chemo-catalysts are promising in cancer treatment since they have immunogenic properties. However, the efficacy of this drug must be further established by conducting clinical trials.